Sausage, sausage, and bacon could even share area with lizard, duck, and difficult leg on the butcher’s, however in contrast to trimmings, they aren’t meat. in nature. Like ham, turkey breast, salami and bologna are examples of so-called processed meats.
“Most processed meat incorporates pork or beef, however it may additionally comprise poultry and offal similar to liver or meat by-products similar to blood,” distinguishes Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni, professor within the Division of Vitamin at FSP/USP ( Faculdade of Public Well being on the College of São Paulo).
Mixing of meat is allowed whether it is stipulated by the technical regulation. In line with Maris Aparecida Rodrigues Pollonio of the School of Meals Engineering at Unicamp (State College of Campinas), all meats processed in Brazil which can be inspected have id and high quality requirements outlined by the Technical Rules on Id and High quality, or RTIQ, of merchandise. of animal origin.
These requirements are regulated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provide and authorized by legislative our bodies similar to Anvisa (Nationwide Well being Surveillance Company).
Though protected from a well being perspective, processed meats may be excessive in sodium and fats. Earlier than they attain the fridges, they’re reworked by way of processes that improve taste or enhance its preservation, together with salting, canning (including salt), fermentation and smoking (exposing meals to smoke) – therefore the “processed” label.
A few of these manufacturing steps, similar to including preservatives, also can hurt the physique. In 2015, the Worldwide Company for Analysis on Most cancers (IARC), a part of the WHO (World Well being Group), added processed meat to its record of Group 1 carcinogens for which there’s already enough proof of a hyperlink to most cancers. for instance.
Stay effectively heard from meals engineers, nutritionists and medical doctors to clarify how processed meat is made and why consuming an excessive amount of of it may improve your danger of continual illness.
Mortadella and sausages: meat, leftovers and substances
Much less noble cuts of meat (“second” meat) are typically used within the preparation of bolognese and sausages. It’s also potential to make use of so-called “mechanically separated meat”, CMS, i.e. bones and carcasses of poultry, cattle or pigs which were deboned and transformed into uncooked materials for the manufacturing of processed meat.
These bones and carcasses should be authorized for human consumption by the Federal Inspection Service (SIF). Jheniffer Medeiros Campos Guerra, a nutritionist and researcher on the Laboratory of Animal Origin on the UFPE (Federal College of Pernambuco), explains that the business makes use of CMS to scale back the price of sausages and never waste meat that might not be eliminated manually on the slaughterhouse.
“If we’re to think about cattle, which is a big animal, weighing 500 kg, it is not uncommon to have a bit of meat left after slicing that’s caught within the carcass. This implies some huge cash, so the business makes use of this meat linked to the bones,” he says meat specialist.
These items are floor and frozen, transferred to a tool known as a “cutter” after which combined with ice, salt and components similar to nitrites and phosphates. Starch and vegetable proteins will also be added.
Then the substances are combined collectively to kind a skinny mass (technically referred to as an emulsion) which consists of a mix of meat with the moisture of its fats, water, salt and substances.
Lastly, the combination is stuffed — that’s, launched — into an acceptable container, which may be, for instance, the gut of an ox. The preparation is boiled and cooled for commercialization.
Ham comes from a part of the muscle and ham is a mix
In line with Guerra, ham is the one processed meat whose composition doesn’t embody meat mixtures: it’s made out of pork muscle. Ham additionally contains numerous forms of meat.
Each ham and ham are restructured pork merchandise which can be in brine. “It is just like once we wish to season an entire piece of ham at dwelling and depart it in a single day on this marinade,” compares Pollonio, a professor at Unicamp.
This salt resolution is utilized to the ham items by injection within the calculated weight. The cuts are then fed into a tool the place “flipping steps” happen to distribute the substances into the animal’s muscle.
Parts are inserted and positioned in particular codecs for cooking. They’re then pressed and packaged and may be offered in slices.
Hamburger, bacon and wrap
Boxed hamburgers, obtainable in supermarkets, are meat merchandise made completely from various kinds of meat. They could or could not comprise spices and are molded and frozen.
The origin of bacon is pork stomach. A portion of pork goes by way of a means of salting and smoking, typically being uncovered to synthetic smoke.
Within the case of coated merchandise similar to nuggets, the place to begin is the substrate, which could be a complete marinated fillet or a restructured uncooked materials.
“To those are added layers referred to as predusting, dough and bread slicer, that are just like artisanal baking processes, however with way more stability and safety,” describes Pollonio.
salami and extra
Meat uncooked supplies are used for manufacturing — primarily pork and beef in Brazil. They’re floor with salt and a few substances and embedded in permeable packaging.
In air-conditioned chambers with temperature and relative humidity management, the fermentation course of takes place with managed acidification and drying to approx. 30% of the unique weight. This enables the salami to be secure for storage exterior the fridge. “But when it is sliced, it must be refrigerated,” says Pollonio.
There are additionally recent merchandise (which should be saved chilly) or frozen, similar to sausage, marinated cuts, Christmas birds and frozen loin. These are flavored, ready in line with their normal of id and marketed.
What are the well being dangers?
Iarc (Worldwide Company for Analysis on Most cancers), a department of the WHO, printed a large-scale research in 2018 that concluded the carcinogenic danger to people of consuming purple meat and processed meat.
MarchioniSure FSP-USP, explains that sure steps in meat processing, similar to curing and smoking, can result in the formation of carcinogenic chemical substances, together with N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons.
Carcinogenic compounds, says the researcher, mix to kind compounds (adducts) that, if not repaired, trigger mutations.
As well as, processed meat also can obtain components, similar to shade fixing substances (nitrates), that are dangerous to well being, along with salt.
Such substances are used within the meals business to restrict the expansion of dangerous micro organism. Nitrites and nitrates themselves usually are not carcinogenic. Each are naturally occurring chemical compounds that comprise nitrogen and oxygen and are current in water, soil, and greens similar to beets and spinach.
The issue is that after they react with sure compounds, similar to amino acids (current in proteins), they’ll kind substances with dangerous potential, similar to nitrosamines, that are carcinogenic.
Correctly, explains Marchioni, nature has processed most greens, which comprise important concentrations of nitrates, additionally wealthy in antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E and polyphenols) that forestall undesirable chemical reactions, which isn’t the case with meals.
Though regulatory businesses all over the world set limits on the addition of those compounds – in Brazil, for instance, it’s 150 mg per kilogram of meals – extreme consumption of processed meat is a trigger for concern.
Fábio Guilherme Campos, former president and full member of the SBP (Brazilian Society of Proctology), factors out that bowel most cancers is the results of the interplay of two elements, genetic and behavioral – the latter involving meals.
“The breakdown of processed meat fats within the intestine can create some substances which can be dangerous to the physique, so if you happen to eat a whole lot of fats and little fiber, you will not make the short-chain fatty acids which can be protecting and lifelong.” there can be an imbalance,” says he, who can be a professor on the USP Faculty of Drugs.
Along with growing the danger of sure forms of most cancers, consuming processed meats could improve the danger of different continual illnesses, similar to stroke and sort 2 diabetes, relying on the quantity of fats and sodium.
If you purchase a meat product, you wish to eat meat, however in actuality you might be consuming a share of protein with water, salt and fats. Jennifer Medeiros Campos Guerra, nutritionist and researcher
Inca (Nationwide Most cancers Institute), linked to the Ministry of Well being, recommends that the consumption of this sort of animal protein be fully averted or at the least diminished.
“For instance, thrice every week is extreme,” analyzes Campos.